Electrikal cables consist of
• Conductor for transmitting electric power
• Insulation to insulate the conductor from direct contact with other objects,
• External protection against mechanical damage, chemical or electrochemical effects, fire or any other dangerous effects external to the cable.
The copper conductor has been extensively used for cables. But aluminum conductor is also being now used to a large extent. Both copper and aluminum conductors are manufactured as per IS8130-1984.The conductors may be either solid or standard. Stranding of conductors provides good flexibility, making them easier to handle; they are less prone to kinks and breaks, and to a large extent it eliminates the risk of the conductor breaking through the dielectric. The wires in a stranded conductor are twisted together to form layers. Stranding consists of 6 wires around one, then 12 wires around six, then 18 wires around 12 and so on. A stranded conductor is expressed as 19/0.1 or 3/20 or 7/20, etc., where the first number stands for a number of strands, and the second number corresponds to the diameter of the conductor of each strand either in mm or in standard wire gauge.
Insulation materials which are used in cables are:
– Vulcanized rubber
– Butyl rubber
– Silicon rubber
– Styrene rubber
– Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
– Impregnated paper
– Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE)
Today, rubber insulation is not much in use in cable manufacturing; Only PVC insulation, Heat retardant polyvinyl chloride insulation (HRPVC) and XLPE are used.
PROTECTIVE MECHANICLE COVERING
Cables with PVC insulation over conductors are in mild steel conduits, raceways, ducts, PVC pipes, to provide external protection. Power cables are protected against mechanical damage by armouring with steel tapes or galvanized steel wires.
TYPES OF CABLES
The following types of cables are available in the domestic market.
• Household cables, control cables, flexible cords, multicore flexible domestic appliance cords. These cables are manufactured as per IS-694-1990 and available in the 1100V grade.
• Heavy duty PVC insulated power cables: these are manufactured as per IS-1554-part II-1988 and are available in the 650V/1100V/11000V/22000V/33000V grade.
• Heavy duty paper insulated power cables: These are manufactured as per IS-692-1973 and are available in the 11000V/ 22000V/33000V grade.
• Heavy duty cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) power cables: these are manufactured as per IS-7098-part II-1985 and are available in the 1100 V/ 11000 V/22000 V/33000 V grade.
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